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F -- The Dyke Family: 11-15 22-17 15-19.

This group of formations is characterized by the double exchange on squares 14/19. Some "dykes" are weak, while others are quite strong. Several elements enter into the picture. In the first place, "dyking" on square 14 is seldom strong, when (1) your opponent has pieces on 5, 6, 1, 2, 7 (or 3), posing a threat to the stranded man on square 14, and (2) pieces lined up on squares 15, 11, and 8, further restricting the movement of the white man on 25. On the other hand, dyking may be quite strong when condition one is present, but condition two is not present. As an illustration of this, see example 47. The author will attempt to present the so-called "strong dykes" first, in the order of kinship and playing strength. Note carefully the comments made on each illustration.

Example 41, the Black Dyke: 11-15 22-17 15-19 24-15 10-19 23-16 12-19 (basically, this is a strong Dyke, since white has played the piece formerly on square 22 to square 17; compare the White Dyke of example 51) 25-22 8-11, now 27-23 attempting to displace this man is best. 22-18 does not work so well, as 9-14 18-9 6-22 26-17 11-15 leaves black with a powerful formation, as shown in example 63. After 27-23, black has only a slight edge.

Example 42, the Bristol Single: 11-16 22-18 16-20 18-14 9-18 23-14 10-17 21-14 8-11 25-22 11-15 29-25 4-8 24-19 15-24 28-19 8-11 22-18 11-15, and white has a slight advantage.

Example 43, 11-16 22-17 16-20 17-14, same as example 42.

Example 44, Irregular: 11-16 22-18 7-11 18-14 10-17 21-14 9-18 23-14 3-7 25-21 11-15 29-25 16-19. Black cannot effectively attack the man on square 14, since 6-9 22-17 9-18 26-23 (white should win) 25-22 6-9 22-17 9-18 26-23. White is strong.

Example 45, Irregular: 11-16 22-17 7-11 17-14, same as example 44.

Example 46, the Edinburgh Single: 9-13 22-18 6-9 18-14 9-18 23-14 10-17 21-14 12-16* (black attempts to restrict the movement of the man on square 25, threatening 16-19 and the two for two against 25-22, a characteristic of the defense against the "dyke" in many cases) 26-22 11-15* 22-18 etc., white is strong.

Example 47, the Kelso: 10-15 22-17 6-10 17-14 9-18 23-14 10-17 21-14 1-6 (the waiting move preparing to attack the man on 14, if the opportunity presents itself) 25-21 11-16 29-25 16-19 (this formation is somewhat similar to the one shown in example 42) 25-22 6-9 22-17 9-18 26-23, white is strong.

Example 48, the Kelso: 10-15 22-17 7-10 17-14 10-17 21-14 9-18 23-14 3-7 25-21 (24-19 is good) 6-9 etc., and white has only a draw at best. Note that the two conditions given in the preliminary explanation on this group are present here.

Example 49, the Double Corner Dyke: 9-14 22-17 11-16 25-22 16-19 24-15 10-19 23-16 12-19 17-14 6-15 21-17 5-9 17-13 2-6, and white has a small advantage in position.

Example 50, the Paisley: 11-16 24-19 8-11 22-18 16-20 18-14 9-18 23-14 10-17 21-14 11-16 26-23 6-9 (the characteristic "pinch") 29-25 9-18 23-14 16-23 27-18 12-16 31-27, and the game is about even.

Example 51, the White Dyke: 11-15 22-17 8-11 17-14 9-18 10-17 21-14 (this dyke is a good defense, but it can hardly be classified as strong, black having pieces on 1, 2, and 6 with which to attack the man on 14, as well as a strong single corner development) 12-16 (best) 26-23 16-19 23-16 11-20 (preparing to attack the man on 14) 24-19 15-24 28-19, then 6-9 starts a "run down" which must be carefully met by white.

Example 52, Irregular: 9-14 22-18 11-16 18-9 5-14 25-22 16-19 (purely a defensive dyke) 24-15 10-19 23-16 12-19 22-17 6-10 27-24 (the characteristic "pinch" as in example 50) 2-7 (8-12 is very weak, as black has no piece on square 5 to develop after the jumps) 24-15 10-19 17-10 7-14* 29-25, and black has a very weak game.

Example 53, the Bristol Single: 11-16 22-18 16-19 24-15 10-19 23-16 12-19 (a weak dyke, as white is allowed to build up a formidable center) 25-22 9-14 (virtually necessary) 18-9 5-14 22-17, same as example 52.

Note: This presentation is far from complete, and it is suggested that the student devote some time to the examination of "dyke" formations arising from games not shown here.

G -- The Ayrshire Lassie Family: 11-15 24-20 8-11.

In this family of formations, white presupposes the development of 24-20 followed by 28-24 and 23-19, effecting a "cramp" on black's single corner file. The characteristic development following these moves is the black advance by 15-18, further occupying the center. The following formations should be noted.

Example 54, the Ayrshire Lassie: 11-15 24-20 8-11 28-24 4-8 (3-8 is also a good development, and move frequently arises as in example 55) 23-19 9-14 (15-18 is also good, but this is the characteristic development) 22-17 5-9 17-13 15-18 26-23 1-5 32-28* 14-17 etc., black has a slight edge.

Example 55, the Kelso Lassie: 10-15 24-20 7-10 28-24 3-7 23-19 9-14 22-17 5-9 17-13 15-18 26-23 1-5, contemplating 11-15 or 11-16 20-11 8-15 next.

Example 56, the Kelso Lassie: 10-15 24-20 6-10 28-24 1-6 23-19 15-18 (note that 9-14 must not be played here, in view of creating a "knuckle") 22-15 11-18 26-22 7-11 etc., black has a slight advantage.

Example 57, the Denny Lassie: 10-14 24-20 6-10 22-17 11-15 17-13 1-6 28-24 8-11 23-19 15-18 26-23 14-17, and black has a slight advantage.

Example 58, the Edinburgh Cross: 9-13 23-18 5-9 26-23 11-16 30-26 10-14 24-19 8-11 28-24 16-20 18-15 11-18 22-15 7-10 32-28 2-7, and the position is about even.

Example 59, the Edinburgh Lassie: 9-13 24-20 10-14 22-18 5-9 25-22 7-10 28-24 3-7 32-28 1-5 24-19 11-15* 18-11 8-24 28-19 14-17 21-14 9-25 29-22, and white has a slight advantage.

Example 60, the Old Fourteenth: (note: while this opening has been elsewhere classified by many authorities, it is in the author's opinion an Ayrshire Lassie development) 11-15 23-19 8-11 22-17 4-8 17-13 15-18 24-20 11-15 28-24 8-11 26-23 9-14 31-26, now 6-9 is correct, and leads to about an even game.

H -- The Bristol and Boston Family: 11-16 24-20 16-19.

In this group of positions, possession of either square 14 or 19 is completed by one side or the other. It can be hardly classified as a "dyke" formation, as it embodies entirely different characteristics.

Example 61, the Bristol: 11-16 24-20 16-19 23-16 12-19 22-18 9-14 18-9 5-14 25-22 10-15 22-17 6-10 29-25 8-11, and black has a slightly better position.

Example 62, the Boston: 11-15 22-17 9-13 17-14 10-17 21-14 8-11 24-19 15-24 28-19 11-16 25-21 6-9 etc., leads to a fairly even game.

Example 63, the Kelso: 10-15 22-17 9-13 17-14 11-16 (best) 21-17 13-22 25-11 8-15 24-19 15-24 27-11 7-16 23-18, white is strong.

Example 64, the Edinburgh Single: 9-13 22-18 10-15 18-14, same as example 63.

Example 65, the Edinburgh Single: 9-13 22-18 12-16 18-14 10-17 21-14 16-19 23-16 11-20 24-19 etc., white is strong.

I -- The Laird and Lady Family: 11-15 23-19 8-11 22-17 9-13 17-14 10-17 21-14l

In this group of formations, the characteristic development assumes a complex pattern, in which both sides bypass one another's advanced pieces. Hence, the student will do well to examine the formations give hereunder.

Example 66, the Laird and Lady: 11-15 23-19 8-11 22-17 9-13 17-14 10-17 21-14 15-18 19-15 4-8 24-19 13-17 28-24 17-21 etc., about even.

Example 67, the Bristol: 11-16 24-20 16-19 23-16 12-19 22-18 10-14 18-15 7-10 25-22 14-18 29-25 9-14 20-16 5-9 27-24* etc., and black has the better position.

Example 68, the Denny: 10-14 23-19 14-18 22-15 11-18 21-17 9-13 17-14 8-11, same as example 66.

Example 69, the Denny: 10-14 24-19 11-16 22-17 14-18 23-14 9-18 19-15 16-19 17-14 12-16 21-17 16-20, white is powerful.

Example 70, the Double Corner: 9-14 22-18 5-9 25-22 11-16 18-15 10-19 24-15 7-10 27-24 10-19 24-15 16-19 23-16 12-19 22-17 14-18 17-13 9-14 29-25 8-12 31-27 etc., and the game is about even.

Example 71, Irregular: 12-16 23-18 16-19 24-15 10-19 18-15 11-18 22-15 7-11 26-22 11-18 22-15 9-14 25-22 5-9 22-17 14-18 17-13 9-14, now 30-26 is best, but 31-26 forms example 70 at the last move.

Example 72, the Edinburgh Book: 9-13 23-19 10-14 19-15 11-18 22-15 7-11 26-22 11-18 22-15 12-16 24-20 16-19 25-22 14-18 29-25 5-9 20-16 9-14 16-12, and the positions are balanced.

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